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Europe’s carmakers face raw material bottleneck for EV batteries

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  • Carmakers investing closely in battery cell manufacturing
  • Funding in uncooked materials extraction has lagged
  • Corporations vie for provides of lithium, nickel, cobalt

FRANKFURT, Oct 13 (Reuters) – Main carmakers like Volkswagen , Daimler and Stellantis have been racing to safe battery cell provides in Europe, however might face an even bigger problem as they search to go electrical – discovering sufficient battery uncooked supplies.

Failure to acquire ample provides of lithium, nickel, manganese or cobalt may sluggish the shift to electrical automobiles (EVs), make these automobiles costlier and threaten carmakers’ revenue margins.

“There’s a severe query as as to if provide can sustain with demand throughout the battery provide chain,” says Daniel Harrison, an auto analyst at Ultima Media.

Till just lately, Europe was seen as having misplaced the battery race to the dominant Asian producers like CATL in China, South Korea’s LG Chem , and Japan’s Panasonic , says Ilka von Dalwigk from EIT InnoEnergy, which has arrange an organization community funded by the European Union within the “European Battery Alliance”.

“No person noticed that as an issue,” says von Dalwigk. “The pondering was that we will import battery cells.”

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However forecasts from banks like UBS that EV gross sales would soar over the approaching decade shook the political institution and carmakers, and compelled a rethink of battery manufacturing.

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This was adopted by EU funding programmes value billions and main battery plant bulletins by automotive producers and suppliers. Volkswagen alone plans six battery vegetation in Europe, whereas Daimler will construct 4 with companions.

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Just lately, battery cell manufacturing unit bulletins have come thick and quick, and EIT InnoEnergy now lists nearly 50 deliberate tasks within the EU.

If all these plans grow to be actuality, native manufacturing ought to meet demand round 2030. About 640 gigawatt hours (GWh) can be out there, sufficient for common annual manufacturing of 13 million automobiles.

By 2030, Ultima Media estimates international worldwide provide at 2,140 GWh, with demand at 2,212 GWh.

Ultima Media’s Harrison tasks Volkswagen’s six deliberate vegetation would permit the Wolfsburg-based firm to cowl round two thirds of its personal battery wants.


The issue lies with uncooked supplies like lithium, nickel, manganese and cobalt.

Market consultants from Benchmark Mineral Intelligence (BMI) converse of “the good uncooked materials disconnect” – excessive investments in cell factories, however lacking investments in uncooked materials extraction.

Inside a yr, the worth for lithium carbonate has greater than doubled, explains Caspar Rawles, head of worth and information evaluation at BMI.

Within the case of cobalt, the place the biggest deposits are situated in Democratic Republic of the Congo and are generally extracted underneath depressing working circumstances, a rise in worth can be anticipated.

On the very starting of the provision chain, it takes round seven years for brand new mines to be developed.

“Europe isn’t the one area that’s elevating its e-car targets and decreasing CO2 emissions,” mentioned Rawles.

A world race is underneath manner.

The automotive business is at the moment experiencing painful manufacturing disruptions because of the scarcity of semiconductors.

Some carmakers, together with Volkswagen, try to safe the provision of uncooked supplies with unique provide contracts.

Up to now, lithium has primarily come from Australia and Chile, cobalt from the Congo, and graphite from China. The biggest processors of cathode and anode materials are additionally situated there, and in Japan.

However imports can grow to be costlier on account of tariff will increase in commerce disputes and interrupted by logistics issues, as a tanker accident that blocked the Suez Canal just lately confirmed.

And lengthy journeys are dangerous for these centered on making batteries with as few CO2 emissions as attainable.


One reply is investments in uncooked materials extraction in Europe – lithium is especially out there.

Startup Vulcan Power is engaged on acquiring lithium CO2-neutrally from thermal water in Germany’s Higher Rhine plain and has already signed up Renault as a buyer.

“We would wish a whole lot of tasks like Vulcan Power – with one in each European nation we might have an opportunity to construct the provision chain in Europe,” says Harrison.

EIT InnoEnergy estimates by 2030 Europe may faucet 1 / 4 of the uncooked supplies it wants, so is engaged on elevating extra money that might set off additional investments.

Recycling is another choice. However right here, too, Europe lags far behind China.

Presently, high quality points imply solely 10% to twenty% of demand could possibly be met with recycled materials, says von Dalwigk.

There’s a danger the shift to e-mobility shall be slowed down, says Harrison.

He provides, although, that he believes the European Fee and EU member states must take motion – akin to extra subsidies for exploring reserves and recycling – “as a result of a lot is at stake economically and ecologically.”

Further reporting by Nick Carey
Modifying by Mark Potter


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